Antibiotic resistance of bacteria and its determination in veterinary medicine

Veterinarni Medicina 44, 1999, 53-59

The current knowledge of genetic principles of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is based above all on results of investigations of human bacterial strains. It has been demonstrated that genetic factors of resistance, including plasmids and transposons, can be transmitted within human and animal populations and between them. While the human medicine are available standard methods for the determination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the results of resistance tests are interpreted in terms of clearly defined criteria, no standard methods and interpretation criteria have been laid down for veterinary medicine. Therefore, studies ol antibiotic resistance in veterinary medicine should concentrate on standardization of methods and formulation of interpretation criteria based on results of resistance tests in a large set of pathogenic agents. The definition of the criteria sl should result from the concept of resistance as a genetically based characteristic of a bacterial strain alone. The interpretation criteria should be based on the elaboration of a frequency histogram in terms of MIC values and sizes of diffusion zones without considering levels of the antimicrobial agent bl vivo. It is suggested to emphasize the categorization of resistance in terms of concentrations of antimicrobial agents and the categorization in terms of resistance as a persistent quality. Such studies are justified not only by the urgency to cope with the problem of resistance as such, but also by the necessity to improve the protection of animal and human health

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