The importance of diptera for transmission, spreading and survival of agents of some bacterial and fungal diseases in humans and animals

Veterinarni Medicina 44, 1999, 133-160

All developmental stages of Diptera can take part in transmission and spreading of agents of some bacterial and fungal diseases: eggs, larvae, pupae and imagoes in which some of the agents can survive for some time. Bacteria of the following genera were isolated from naturally infected Diptera: Aerobacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Francisella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Moraxella, Neisseria, Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella, Sarcina, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Vibrio and fungi of the genera Absidia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Microsporum, Mucor, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis, Trichophyton and Trichothecium. Experiments confirmed the possibility of transmission of brucellosis, redfever, cholera, bovine infectious keratoconjunctivitis, lepra, bovine leptospirosis, listeriosis, bovine mastitis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, anthrax, black leg, tuberculosis, tularemia, Helicobacter pylori and dermatophytosis. Of special importance are data on transovarial transmission of Salmonellae, survival of bacteria in larvae and pupae of Diptera and accumulation of botulotoxin in fly larvae. To assess the possibility of spreading and transmission of the agents of bacterial infections and fungi by Diptera it is necessary to know well not only the characters of agents of bacterial and fungal diseases but also morphological, physiological and developmental specificities of Diptera, their occurrence, relations to the environment and engagement in the food chain. This knowledge can be used in solving special epidemiological and epizootological situations

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