The effect of respiratory diseases in calves on the blood gas values and acid-base balance

Veterinarni Medicina 43, 1998, 69-74

In 43 calves at the age of 1-10 months with diagnosis of respiratory syndrome related to clinical finding, parameters of acid-base balance and blood gases: topical acidity - pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide - pCO(2), partial pressure of oxygen - pO(2), saturation of blood haemoglobin by oxygen - SAT, topical bicarbonate - HCO3- and excess of bases - BE. Calves were hospitalized on the clinic, they were clinically examined before blood taking and according to the degree of affection of the respiratory system they were divided into three groups - respiratory syndrome of light degree - Rsd 1 (n = 13), medium degree Rsd 2 (n = 15) and heavy degree Rsd 3 (n = 15). Clinical examinations were performed by routine clinical examination methods. Arterial blood, taken by puncture from a. axillaris, was examined and after taking it was analyzed on automatic analyzer ABL4, manufactured by Radiometer Copenhagen. The results obtained were compared with the values obtained from clinically healthy calves - Rsd 0 (n = 20). It was found from the results attained (Tabs. I to II) that even in light degree of disease - Rsd 1 and 2 - significant changes were only in pO(2) (p < 0.001) and partial respiratory insufficiency occurs, while in the other investigated indicators more significant changes compared with healthy calves were found in heavy form of disease (Rsd 3) and were characterized by more significant decrease in pCO(2) by increase of pCO(2) values on average to 7.51 kPa (p < 0.001) and incidence of global respiratory insufficiency. In addition, increase of the values of bicarbonates and BE proportionally with graveness of the disease (Rsd 3, p < 0.001) as a manifestation of compensatory controlling mechanisms of the body, responding to increasing pCO(2) and occurrence of respiratory acidosis. This was shown by maintenance of blood pH within range of physiological values (7.36-7.44) almost in 50% of calves of the group Rsd 3. Acidemia las a consequence of non-compensatory respiratory acidosis) was found in most severe statuses when pCO(2) achieved the values from 9 to 10 kPa. As follows from the results, significant trends related to the seriousness of disease were recorded not only in blood gases - pO(2) and pCO(2), but also in other parameters of acid-base balance - pH, HCO3- and BE, and these are presented in Tab. III. The results obtained deepened the current knowledge in the sphere of the effect of disease of the respiratory system on internal medium and showed that in diseases of respiratory system analysis of blood gases as well as investigated parameters of acid-base balance of arterial blood is a significant component of evaluation of the degree of affection what extends possibilities of diagnostics together with determination of prognosis before and during therapy

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