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The Use of Some Serum and Blood Parameters for Evaluation of the Level of Nitrogen and Energy-Metabolism in Calves

BOMBA A, PAULIK S, KRALICEK L, ZITNAN R, POLACEK M
Veterinarni Medicina 38, 1993, 151-160

Concentrations of total proteins, albumin, total serum immunoglobulins, urea and total lipids in the blood serum and glucose concentrations in the blood were investigated in the periods of milk nutrition and weaning, and the results were evaluated with respect to their differences from the range of reference values. Concentrations of total proteins (TP) in the blood serum significantly decreased if the starting values at the age of two weeks (65,45 g/l) were compared with the values at the age of five weeks, and they began to increase to the age of 11 weeks. The average TP values at the age of 11 weeks were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the starting values (Fig. 1, Tab. 1). TP concentrations were above the upper limit of the reference range since weaning (nine weeks of age). Subnormal TP values were recorded in individual animals at the age of two, five weeks, at weaning, at 11 weeks in the animals on all-vegetable diet in 4.8 %, 19.1 %, 4.8 % and 9.5 % of the calves, respectively (Fig. 2). The albumin concentrations were increasing from the age of five weeks but the changes in the values were statistically insignificant and the average values remained in the reference range (Fig. 1). The reduced albumin concentrations were recorded in individual animals in 28.6 % of the calves at the age of two weeks, in 19.1 % of the calves at the age of five weeks, in 42.9 % of the calves at weaning, and in 38.1 % at the age of 11 weeks. The concentrations of total serum immunoglobulins (TS-Ig) were increasing since the animal collection with their growing age (Fig. 1) while in comparison with the starting values the increases were significant at the age of five weeks (p < 0.05), nine and eleven weeks (p < 0.01). The average TS-Ig values rose to the reference range at the age of five weeks. In individual animals, the reduced TS-Ig values were recorded in the serum at the age of two weeks in 71.4 % of calves, at the age of five weeks in 42.9 %, at weaning in 33.3 % and at the age of 11 weeks it was only in 9.5 % of the calves (Fig. 2). The urea concentration in the serum was decreasing from the age of five weeks to weaning. In comparison with the starting values, the differences in the average values were statistically insignificant and the average values remained within the reference range (Fig. 1). Subnormal values were determined in 28.6 % of the calves at the age of two weeks when they were evaluated individually, in 42.9 % at the age of 5 weeks, in 14.3 % at weaning and in 28.6 % of the calves on all-vegetable diet (Fig. 2). Glycaemia had the highest average values at the age of five weeks, then it began to decrease to reach the lowest value at the age of 11 weeks, and the difference from the starting value was significant (p < 0.01). The average glucose concentrations remained within the reference range at the age of two and nine weeks. They were above the upper boundary of the reference range at the age of five weeks while at the age of 11 weeks they remained below the lower boundary of the reference range (Fig. 3). In individual animals, the reduced glucose values were recorded in 19.1 % of the calves at the age of two weeks, in 4.8 % at the age of five weeks and in 57.1 % of the calves at the age of 11 weeks. No reduced values of glycaemia were recorded at weaning (Fig. 4). The concentrations of total lipids in the blood serum fluctuated and the difference from the starting value of the calves on all-vegetable diet was significant (p < 0.05). The average concentration of total lipids over the whole period of investigation remained below the lower boundary of the reference range (Fig. 3). Subnormal values of total lipids in individual animals were recorded in 61.9 % of the calves at the age of two weeks, in 85.7 % at the age of five weeks, in 71.4 % at weaning and even in 95.2 % of the calves on all-vegetable diet (Fig. 4)


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